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Most developing countries are located in tropics. These areas generally have high rainfall and humidity, which are ideal conditions for the development of micro-organisms and insects, causing high levels of deterioration of crops in storage.
In terms of rice production, India holds the second position in the world. There are so many varieties of rice produced around the world and these are classified into three categories: small, medium and long. All rice varieties are highly sensitive and prone to breakage, discoloration, and losing aroma. The paddy always comes with high moisture level and it has to be dried gently to storable moisture. Please refer chart 1. By cooling the grain through a grain cooler,the paddy can be also partially dried. Through alternative drying and cooling, the paddy is handled very delicately leading to reduction in broken rice percentage. Once the grain is cold, the grain remains cold for longer duration due to its characteristic of being a poor conductor. This results in numerous advantages such as eliminating chances of insect infestation, preserving the aroma of the milled rice, avoiding grain baking, no risk of fungus& not needing to shuffle the grain.
Maize is harvested twice in India.The harvest is classified either as a summer crop or a winter crop. The winter crop maize is more prone to quality deterioration than summer. However in both kinds of crop, if no proper storage measures are taken, the losses can be assumed to be certain. The ideal condition being that first the moisture level of the maize is to be dried from about 20% to safe storage level of 12%. The conventional drying is more expensive in terms of energy consumption also causing grain harshness. Researchers have proven that grain moisture content of 17% & lower treated with heated air for purpose of drying leads to loss in quality. Apart from drying, the losses in maize usually are a result of insects and fungus in improper storage conditions of temperature and moisture. According to FAO,25% of world’s crop is contaminated with mycotoxins. This can be controlled during storage. By cooling the grain though a grain cooler, the benefits are major including the quality of the harvest which stays as if freshly harvested&no affect in weight due to drying and insects infestation.
Wheat in one of the major crop in India. Wheat is stored longer duration especially in India for 2 years. The basic problems faced with Wheat are drying, backing, insects & molds infestation, loosing freshness, change in color and smell. Just by cooling wheat once to below 14C can be stored for longer duration without re cooling. Once the grain is cold it remains cold as the grain is a good insulator. So, by milling this cold grain which preserves the harvest freshness gives better yield and high milling performances.
The most important concern in barley is the germination quality. As similar to seed, by cooling it at moisture level of 15% the germination quality can be improved.
In general oil seed having property of gaining heat especially cotton seed due to oxidation process is intensified because of its oil and fat present in it. Additionally dude to increase in free fatty acids there are further losses in quantity. By cooling such losses can be avoided.
During pallet production, the conventional cooling from the ambient air is not sufficient to achieve the complete cooling of the core pallet. This results in risks of stress cracks and makes the feed pallet prone to having a powdery surface. By conservation cooling the pallets are cooled to the core and the pallet is hardened. This end product is easy to transport and ideal for bird and animal consumption.
One of the richest sources of protein and other nutritional values. The most important quality measures are yield, color (pulses can oxidize, and lose color and grade), aroma (toordall), starch content&fluffiness (oriddall). Pulses are not highly moist like paddy or maize. The moisture content varies from 16% to 20% and for safe storage it has to be dried below 14%. Even after the moisture of the grain is reduced to safe storage levels, the risk of insect infestation remains due to high tropical ambient temperatures. Also, pulses cannot be dried too much, eg. for beans, supplemental heat drying temperatures should be restricted to a maximum of 27°C to 32°C to avoid germination loss. Source: Canadian Grain Commission. By using agrain cooler, the grains can be cooled to the desired temperature and eventually can achieve drying maximum up to 2% at moisture 16% and resulting in grain safe moisture content of 14% without additional energy. This eliminates the need to worry about insect infestation, decolonization& leads to high milling performance, conservation of harvest freshness preserving the aroma, nutritional values and fluffiness.
The quality of seeds is measured in germination percentage, purity and vigor. By reducing seed moisture level below 14% and temperature below 15 Deg C uniformly, the grain can be stored safely.However, cooling through a grain cooler would lead to the bulk seed at moisture content of 16% have better germination quality & directly removing the risk of insects, mold and fungus infestation.
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